Private economy in China
The two session of the twelve CPPCC National Committee held this afternoon “to deepen the reform and promote the sustained and healthy economic development” press conference, the CPPCC Standing Committee, former vice chairman of the NLD central Peking University, director of the division of Social Sciences, honorary president of Peking University Guanghua School of management, Li Yining at the meeting said that the reform of the rest of the hard is mainly of interest group and institutional inertia.
Li Yining said that our reform has been more than 30 years, today’s reform situation and more than 30 years ago is not the same, because some of the more easy to reform has been changed, and the rest are some problems. Mentioned “what is the bones? I actually saw two big questions. First, interest group. Interest groups, they believe that the reform is detrimental to their interests, so there are a variety of different responses.
Second, according to the view of institutional economics, there is a system of inertia, also known as path dependence. The old road is used to, and the new road is always the right place, where it is not appropriate, the old road is always the most insurance. These two problems need to be solved in the reform.
Li Yining pointed out that the interests of the group should be the first of the future prospects of China, China’s future development as a problem for us, interest groups on this issue should be subject to the overall situation, we need to change, but we also see the actual interests of the reform process should be considered from the overall situation, not because some of the interests of the group’s opposition or obstacles to reform, which requires determination. As for the path dependence problem, it is also the need for a kind of courage to reform. Because people are accustomed to, think of the past, the right, the right, so many years, and now what. Also has a problem of concept renewal. So, I think the prime minister Li Keqiang mentioned “a ruling means to resolve”, which is consistent with the actual China”.
New era of wealth
2002 years in October, the party’s sixteen, greatly promoting the rapid and healthy development of non-public economy, forming a third wave of development. The first time the sixteen report clearly suggested that “we must unswervingly consolidate and develop the public ownership economy. ,. We must unswervingly encourage, support and guide non-public economic development. And, as China’s basic economic system established, the non-public economy has been elevated to a hitherto unknown height, to including private entrepreneurs Feng public ownership economy people a “reassurance. In February 24, 2005, the State Council issued the “opinions” on encouraging and guiding the development of the private sector, for the first time the central government laws and regulations in the form of non-public economy healthy and rapid development has provided policy support. With a good wind. ,. Good rain knows the season. From now on, the new stage of China’s non-public economy, especially the private economy, has entered a new stage of large quantity growth and quality improvement.
According to the National Federation of industry and Commerce statistics, as of September 2007, the number of private enterprises reached 5 million 380 thousand, accounting for more than 80% of the national legal person enterprises, become China’s largest enterprise groups. Individual private economy has accounted for about 40% of the national GDP. In the process of rapid development of non-public economy, the emergence of a large number of private enterprises, some enterprises have become the industry pacesetter, well-known brand founder, leader of the local economy Teng barbara.
“China Business Times” in the review of the non-public economy 30 years, summarized the road. The contribution of non-public economy to national economy has accounted for about 65% GDP, accounting for 70-80% of economic growth, to become the biggest driving force of economic development has become the main source of it absolutely solve the social problem of employment Chinese, provides an important guarantee for its continuous policy, legal system and fair treatment process for social stability, strong impetus the whole society more fair it is a strong impetus to the whole social capital and social factors of production efficiency, create a vitality, it increases the wealth of the people to participate in the new rural construction, balanced regional development, contribution to public welfare undertakings, in a positive way to contribute to the progress of the society.
The vibrant socialism is the people’s own creation, the vibrant non-public economy is the private entrepreneurs, including the public sector and the creation of a common. Non-public economy, especially the development of private economy, has become a vivid textbook of China’s reform and opening up. The leading role in the history of the brilliant development of the world, is thousands of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs, they no matter from where, regardless of how the status of the former, have jointly participated and witnessed a new era to create wealth as a significant symbol. In the new century, the private enterprise team size, quality and past cannot be mention in the same breath. They are representatives of the new economy, the rapid appreciation of the land, the rapid development of the capital market, the rapid formation of the wealth accumulation effect of the golden age, so that the rapid increase in economic status, political status has been significantly improved, social influence is growing. In particular, with the wealth of the creator of the structure of the replacement, a large number of private entrepreneurs on the new generation of the front. One of them in a number of people in the rich list of the gorgeous debut, becoming the focus of attention. So, in the creation of wealth on the road, the success of the losers, the story of a different interpretation of their different wealth life, reflects a different living conditions.
Yeung Kwok Keung, the founder of Guangdong Biguiyuan real estate group, was once a humble, poor jingling farmers, he may dream would not have expected, today, after many years, oneself unexpectedly become a market capitalization of over 200 billion yuan of listed company boss and the richest man in mainland China.
With the successful listing of the country garden, the legendary rich life experience has also aroused great interest. On the afternoon of November 11, 2007, has always been low-key billions of Regal Yang Guoqiang into pulpit of Zhongshan University in Guangzhou, and to talk about their next to experience. I did not wear shoes before I was 18. I was wearing clothes from relatives in Hongkong. I cooked the Phi – years of cooking at home, vegetables, cattle and so a lot of work you have done. Because the family is poor, did not have a few years of school, he went to the waste acquisition station to buy the old R point of view, gradually developed a habit of love thinking. – _ times, he talked about the future with my brother, I could not help crying. He recalls the students. I said my brother said 1 years 200 yuan, ten thousand years, 50 yuan also for farming, what is the life?.
In 1978, the beginning of reform and opening up, Yang Guoqiang entered the Shunde commune North Wu Fangguansuo Ren construction. 6 years later, he was promoted to captain of the building. By 1989, he was the legal representative and manager of the construction company of the town government. You do not know how hard to do the construction, the company to find out which companies to build, and then ran to the door to ask if you can give a project I do?. Yang Guoqiang in the construction company as a 10 year manager, drawing, budget, to buy materials, what live are dry, a day off, did not let go, and finally defeated the town of another old construction company. According to Yang Guoqiang’s own statement, is called a tiger with a group of sheep, to defeat a sheep with a group of tigers.
In 1993, Yang Guoqiang and other partners acquired the North Tao construction engineering company, started a private operation. In 1995, he won 80000000 yuan in the Garden Real Estate Development Co. Ltd., started a real estate wealth process. Shunde country garden, he developed the first real estate, the initial sales are not smooth, there have been six months time to sell 3 sets of houses in the dismal situation. How to get rid of the difficulties? Yang Guoqiang unyielding after a bold plan, “education real estate. Concept of the school garden! The “name plate ten sparetime school for adults,” the real estate business model immediately achieved great success, once unsalable thousands of sets of housing quickly snapped up. From then on, Yang Guoqiang this “terrible Shunde people”. Country garden, Guangzhou, to promote the country.
Yang Guoqiang annual income from 200 yuan to hundreds of billions of assets, from the peasants to the contractors to large real estate developers, the history of his fortune is exactly a microcosm of 30 years of reform and opening up to private entrepreneurs in China struggling to rise.
The difficult road to wealth
The growth of Chinese private entrepreneurs, from the beginning is not flat. Writing the history of the development of the private economy, it is the county some of the difficulties, not afraid of suffering, fear of failure of the private entrepreneurs.
In Chinese history, it may be difficult to find a history, as the reform and opening up to 30 years, so that the traditional society for thousands of years with an irresistible trend to modern business society, to bring people so much change the fate of the opportunity. The man who can experience this history is undoubtedly a lucky man who can become a promoter of history with its own power, not only in the fortunate, but in the great. Seize this opportunity to create the fate of miracle, many Yuan had little people living in the bottom of society “. , they have extraordinary performance in the body to create a 1 written from the grassroots. System to the “tree” of the legendary wealth when Yuan insignificant workshops, now has become a modern factory, then some nondescript “wanderer. Now, have become entrepreneurs thoroughly to remould oneself into the sea.
Million households, once the end of the 1970s 80’s. The first batch of rich people “synonymous. In 1980, the Xinhua News Agency broadcast communication the Feiyantan spring “mentioned in late 1979, the Lanzhou City Yantan commune Wei elite brigade team members the, the home has six strong labor, from the team divided the 10000 yuan, Rotarians to his home called” million households “. In the same year, Xinhua News Agency published photo shooting reporter Lee Kum, Linqing City eight Cha Lu Zhen Zhao TA tou Cun Ru LAN Zhao a cotton net income of $10239 deeds reports. This group of photos has been adopted at home and abroad 51 news media, from now on,. Million households, the news went into every household.
In million households stage, first rich mainly rural smart farmers, they in order to get rid of the poor life, suffering fortunately, the cultivation and sale of goods as the main means of getting rich, started by is courage and hard work, earn is hard-earned money. In the early 1980s, as a prototype of our country agriculture specialized commodity production, specializes in a profession of the family — the emergence of specialized households and rapid development, as a large number of surplus labor found a new way. Until the mid 80’s specialist, a popular word in the society.
Million households, the emergence of China’s contemporary history of the big event, which guide the future direction of China’s reform and opening up the outcome of the initial crystallization. Material million households “industrious duty becomes rich, an exemplary role, directly contributing to the 1980s after China business development and economic takeoff.
“Million households” impact on people’s rigid ideas and traditional ideas. Today, some of the practices that it is as if a generation had passed. In the eighty years before, the difference between doing business is considered to be the light is captured, play the market, then sentenced to jail. Because many people into not state-run factories were forced to open small shop, a small restaurant, those outside the system belongs to the edge of the society, often being to the eye. They had never thought, after a few years because of their rich economic status and respect.
Policy of reform and opening up the spring rain, once the deep buried with a long time of the culture gene, it will produce a very great creative force, so that the emergence of a number of local entrepreneurs and wealth hero.
Guangdong, the Chinese southern border provinces, once the economic backwardness, poor resources, scarce local products. However, after the eighties of the last century, due to a trend, hold location, become the first area of the policy of reform and opening to the outside world, and the rapid development of a Chinese economic strength of the first big province. The economic miracle created, and many had little-known grassroots entrepreneurship is directly related to the. It is some Shifang inadvertently into the history of small character creation history, Hui to change history.
Now, the private economy in Guangdong has accounted for 40% of the province’s total economic output, nearly 60 million the number of private enterprises, the emergence of a group and a number of well-known outstanding private entrepreneurs. Not only “made in Guangdong” has swept the country, entered the world, but also has the unique style of Guangdong merchants, the statement is far from young. Here, it has become the largest number of people in the mainland of china.
2002 years in October, the party’s sixteen, greatly promoting the rapid and healthy development of non-public economy, forming a third wave of development. The first time the sixteen report clearly suggested that “we must unswervingly consolidate and develop the public ownership economy. ,. We must unswervingly encourage, support and guide non-public economic development. And as China’s basic economic system finalized, the non-public economy has been elevated to an unprecedented height, to the owners of private enterprises, Feng public ownership economy people a “reassurance. On February 24, 2005, the State Council issued the on encouraging, supporting and guiding the individual and private and other non-public economic development in a number of opinions “, for the first time to the central government and regulations in the form of non-public nuisance of rapid and healthy economic development provides policy support. With a good wind. ,. Good rain knows the season. From now on, the new stage of China’s non-public economy, especially the private economy, has entered a new stage of large quantity growth and quality improvement.
According to the National Federation of industry and Commerce statistics, as of September 2007, the number of private enterprises reached 5380000, accounting for more than 80% of the national legal person enterprises, become China’s largest enterprise groups. Individual private economy has accounted for about 40% of the national GDP. In the process of rapid development of non-public economy, emerged many private enterprises, some enterprises has become the bellwethers of the vanguard of the industry development, the famous brand founder, the local economy Teng basketry.
“China Business Times” in the review of the non-public economy 30 years, summarized the road. Rate the contribution of non-public economy to the national economy to GDP has accounted for about 65%, accounted for incremental economic 70-80%, become the biggest source of power for the economic development of it has become the absolute subject to solve the problem of employment of Chinese society, for the stability of society provides an important guarantee for it constantly strive for policy, legal and institutional fair treatment, effectively promoted the fairness of society as a whole it effectively promoted the improvement of social capital and social factors of production efficiency, bring vitality to create and increase the wealth of the people it is involved in the construction of new countryside, balanced regional development, contribute to public welfare undertakings, in a positive way for the progress of society building blocks.
The vibrant socialism is the people’s own creation, the vibrant non-public economy is the private entrepreneurs, including the public sector and the creation of a common. Non-public economy, especially the development of private economy, has become a vivid textbook of China’s reform and opening up. The leading role in the history of the brilliant development of the world, is thousands of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs, they no matter from where, regardless of how the status of the former, have jointly participated and witnessed a new era to create wealth as a significant symbol. In the new century, the private enterprise team size, quality and past already cannot be mentioned in the same breath. They are representatives of the new economy, the rapid appreciation of the land, the rapid development of the capital market, the rapid formation of the wealth accumulation effect of the golden age, so that the rapid increase in economic status, political status has been significantly improved, social influence is growing. In particular, with the wealth of the creator of the structure of the replacement, a large number of private entrepreneurs on the new generation of the front. One of them in a number of people in the rich list of the gorgeous debut, becoming the focus of attention. So, in the creation of wealth on the road, the success of the losers, the story of a different interpretation of their different wealth life, reflects a different living conditions.
Rise, is a very high frequency of use of the popular vocabulary. In 2007, China Central Television (CCTV) effort to make two political documentaries response strongly, one is “the rise of great powers”, one is “road to rejuvenation”. The two TV film have been hit, is not accidental. “The rise of great powers” describes is one of the world’s major developed countries, is how to choose their own path of development and strong rise, it causes all those concerned about China’s future and destiny of the world biggest developing country in the world to think, how to select how the rise of the W? “Road to rejuvenation” is bravely into the history of the deep, said since the modern Chinese history and the Chinese nation the truth after suffering, sacrifice and struggle, the Chinese people found a realization of the great road of ideal happiness, socialism with Chinese characteristics, which is the only way to achieve the Chinese nation great rejuvenation.
The rise of the emerging social strata can be considered as a sign of the rise of China and the revival of the nation, especially in the private sector. Private enterprises refer to private ownership, the number of employees more nonprofit organization. The capital owner of the private enterprise is the owner of the private enterprise. They gradually tend to the knowledge, the younger, is becoming the economic strength and the social influence of the continuous expansion of the stratum, which is known as the representative of private entrepreneurs. Quite a number of them, in the not too long period of time, to create and accumulate a considerable amount of wealth, become a veritable rich man, some of them have huge wealth, known as the “rich”, and the number and wealth of growth is very fast. Of course, we can not put the main rich and private enterprises equal. On the whole, the formation and development of Chinese private enterprises is not long, the size of a single enterprise is still relatively small. Data show that China’s current beneficiaries of more than 10000000 yuan of private enterprises less than 25%, more than 50000000 yuan accounted for 5.2%, more than 100000000 of only 95%, 2.2% are small and medium enterprises. Private business owners’ personal annual income, the average is 186000 yuan. Therefore, the private business owners in the very few of the rich. But this does not affect the number of people and the development trend of the wealth to continue to grow.
A large number of private entrepreneurs, starting from the rapid development of private and other non-public economy. After the founding of the PRC to 1978, the private economy has only existed for a short time. After the implementation of the reform of the state in 1956, the country has basically disappeared. Fang, the private economy as the “capital on justice. , must be cut off. After 1978, the private economy has been the opportunity to stand up, the state began to change the concept, officially recognized its existence, recognizing that the private economy is an important part of China’s socialist market economy, the development of private economy entered the best period in history. Since 30 years of reform and opening up, in the land of China, has set off a three wave of non-public economic development, which is the representative of the private economy and individual economy.
The first wave appeared in the last century in the late 70’s to the 80’s. At that time, a farmer a gull cattle farming, to lay down their hands of plough and harrow, Ueda feet to start a business did not find permanent jobs back to the city youth l seek livelihoods and become self-employed. Individual industrial and commercial operators to the market, to display their skills. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) standard rigid management system began to loosen, from Chinese Academy of Sciences, Physics Research Institute researcher Chen Chunxian “sea” as a symbol, more and more scientific and technical personnel and cadres and enterprise managers away “iron rice bowl. , out of the 0, joined the ranks of the business to do business. “The first wind, blow to the pond.. However, the non-public economy ship moving in, not Everything is going smoothly. In the late 80s of last century, all kinds of questions one after another, all kinds of criticism heard, just set sail of the non-public sector of the economy is in continue to sail ahead or turn at the crossroads. At this important historical juncture, Deng Xiaoping made a “Southern talk. , put forward “three favorables”, to quell the clamor of the society on the basis of so-called. The dispute over the last name of the society. The east wind blows spring, the non-public economy into the fast lane, set off the second wave.